You should ensure that you organise your ideas clearly by using a variety of linking words and phrases. This will help improve your Cohesion and Coherence scores.
- conjunctions: and, as well as
- adverbials: also, anyway, besides, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly
We use these expressions to give additional information:
- Fish supplies as with substances that might protect against heart disease. Moreover, in many cultures fish is known as a ‘brain food’.
Firstly, secondly and finally are used to order points in an argument:
First, next, after that and then describe the order of activities in a process:
Cause, reason, result
- conjunctions: because, so
- adverbials: therefore, consequently, so, thus, as a result
- prepositions: because of, due to, on account of, owing to
Because introduces the reason for something, and so introduces the result:
- I eat fish three times a week because it protects against heart disease. (reason)
- Fish protects against heart disease so I eat it three times a week. (result)
Therefore, consequently, so, thus, and as a result introduce the result of a situation or action:
We use because of, due to, on account of and owing to to introduce the reason for something:
- The match was cancelled because of the snow. (not
because of it was snowing)
- The buses were all running late owing to the bad weather.
We can use due to, on account of and owing to + the fact that with a clause:
- conjunctions: but, although, though
- adverbials: alternatively, however, in contrast, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, yet
- prepositions: in spite of, despite
We use but between two contrasting ideas:
Although can come at the beginning or in the middle of two contrasting ideas. We use a comma between the two clauses:
- Although the work was supported by grants from the Fisheries Scholarship Fund, this did not affect the research findings.
- The work was supported by grants from the Fisheries Scholarship Fund, although this did not affect the research findings.
We use in spite of and despite + noun/-ing at the beginning or in the middle of two contrasting ideas:
- In spite of the considerable amount of literature on the risks and benefits of fish consumption, there are still important gaps in this information. (not
in spite of there is a considerable amount)
- I eat fish regularly for health reasons despite not liking it much. (not
despite I didn’t like it)
We can use despite and in spite of + the fact that with a clause:
We use these expressions to link two clauses that give the same information in a different way or to give examples: